The impact of context when a respondent answers a question. Examples of contexts that frame a question include:
- The introduction to the questionnaire.
- Previous questions.
- Introductory parts of a question.
- The order of options within a question.
- The situation of the respondent when they answer the question.
Most research into framing effects in surveys relates to how they can bias the results of a question, where the bias may be deliberate, such as in push polling, or, inadvertent. However, framing also occurs when wording questions designed to encourage participation in a survey (e.g., describing the objectives of the survey to a respondent) and when questions are ordered in a way to make it easier for respondents to understand.
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